Success Story of NCoS-NIOMR
The smoking kiln with a capacity for 50kg wet fish was designed and fabricated by each of the NCoS. The Nigerian Institute for Oceanography and Marine Research (NIMOR), Victoria Island, Lagos developed a detachable smoking kiln. The detachable fish smoking kiln was designed specifically to address the many problems of traditional smoking method such as lack of control over the drying process, exposure to dirt and dust, insect infestation, exposure to contaminants and low capacity which often lead to production of unstable and unsafe smoked products which are grossly inadequate. In addition, concerns about food safety and environmental sustainability have provoked major fish consuming countries to introduce institutional innovations for controlling trade in fisheries items, including SPS measures. This, in turn dictates the need for improved fish processing technologies as a coping strategy to meet the increasing stringent requirements and opportunity to play in the local and global markets. The need for fish value added products, especially fish oil is on an increasing track. Fish oil commands high price in the market because consumers are better aware of its health benefits. Existing designs of fish smoking kiln have limitation in responding to the growing need of the end users. New needs and requirements dictate that new technology be developed to meet the growing need of the end users, especially to complement the growing Aquaculture which has been instrumental in making fish widely available in developing countries.
The kiln is double walled and lagged with mineral wool. The inner and outer walls are made of galvanised steel plates. There are four distinct segments namely the heating, the smoking/drying, the hood/chimney and the oil collection/finished product segment. The heating segment contains two vents to supply air for the burning of fuel (charcoal, briquette) to produce energy for the smoking process.
An axial fan is introduced in the design to enhance uniform heat distribution in the drying chamber. The fan motor is powered by mono-crystalline photo voltaic (PV) solar cells or rechargeable dc cells. The drying segment can take five fish trays and an oil collection tray in a single compartment. The fish trays are made from galvanized iron pipes and wire mesh and the oil collection tray is made of galvanized iron sheet of which a galvanized iron oil draining pipe is welded. The exhaust escapes via the chimney mounted on a hood. The assembly inclusive of chimney is constructed of galvanized iron sheets. There is provision for fish oil collection and basket for storing the dried fish. These facilities are provided in a separate compartment. Figure1 shows the feature of the smoking kiln. Some design specifications include:
Heat source: Charcoal, briquette
Height (including chimney and hood): 1.56m
Base Area: 0.95m x 0.9m
Gross weight: 211kg
Advantages of the WAAPP Fish smoking kiln
Detachable, provided with casters facilitate portability ease of movement
Good and efficient use of Charcoal/briquette.
Higher retention of heat because of the insulation. This leads to savings in energy, smoking/drying time and cost.
Uniform fish drying because of the installed fan, which enhances even distribution of heat and enable very minimal rearrangement of trays. Rotation of trays up bottom could be very stressful to workers especially when the trays are hot, and may increase likelihood of operator’s exposure to occupational hazards.
The door with a locking system protects the fish against pilferage and attack by rodents.
The final product comes out with attractive golden yellow or black lustre colour depending on the fish being smoked.
HACCP compliant. There is temperature gauge mounted on the equipment for temperature monitoring.
No direct firing. Hot air and filtered smoke evenly distributed in the smoking chamber using forced convection system powered by solar/rechargeable dc cells.
Hygienic Oil collection system and smoked dried product storage chamber.
Reduce processing time from 24hrs to 6-8hrs
Reduces post harvest losses by 70%